How do FACEBOOK ads work

Nowadays advertising on Facebook seems to be one of the most immediate ways to power the reach of our content.  As an ordinary social networker, we might think no one clicks on Facebook ads, but it’s a mistake because at present Facebook is on track to make 4  billion dollars in this year from advertising alone. Now there are many varieties of Facebook ads. The user can promote his page, post on his page or his website itself. (Stelzner 2010) Facebook advertisements are always targeted to users based on location, demographics and users profile details. All these options are available on Facebook ad manager. As soon as the ads are created user can set a budget and bid for each and every click or impressions that the ad will get. Other users see the ad on, i.e., on the sidebar. In my opinion, Facebook ads are more like display ads than search ads. In Facebook ads should be used to produce demand, not to achieve it. Facebook users are on the site to connect with their friends, not to shop or find products.

If a user visits the advertised website, he won’t be looking for a product, he might have clicked the ad on a whim.  The main mistake most advertisers would make with Facebook ads is not targeting the audience correctly. There are many target options namely location, age, gender, etc. There are also other broad categories including ‘Away from hometown’, ‘Has a birthday in one week.’etc. This kind of broad interests would be very efficient to reach a larger audience. (Chan 2011)  Facebook, the ad manager, has an interesting list of interests to target from Marvel comics to scuba diving. The most difficult part comes selecting the best target.

Social media knew a whole lot more things about us like whether we spent more time in Criminal Case or Super Mario.  Facebook probably knows everything about us like getting married soon, reading a detective novel, taking medication, etc. All these details give advertisers the power to reach us beyond the expectation. While deciding on an ad Facebook shows us the number of profiles we can target to each and every subcategory based on our interests and desires.

The most famous speciality of Facebook ads is the power to layer targeting options on one another, and gradually making users more and more accurate. One exciting example of the power of hyper-targeting which got from research is of was featured in AdWeek last year. In it, a marketing person targeted his roommate with ads so specific the poor guy thought he was cyber stalked.

Example to target a specific audience: If a car manufacturing company wants to put up a special discount offer for the aged people or senior citizens, he can layer particular detail, like finding people who is between the age of 60 and 65, and brought a house in the last few months. So, he might be needing a car soon. Realising whom to be targeted will help one to the most efficient ad targeting tool and easy routes to get to the target.


  1. Stelzner, Michael. “Facebook Ads Strategy: How Marketers Need To Alter Their Techniques: Social Media Examiner”. com. N.p., 2017. Web. 5 Apr. 2017.
  2. Chan, C., 2011. Using online advertising to increase the impact of a library Facebook page.Library Management, 32(4/5), pp.361-370.
  3. Dehghani, M. and Tumer, M., 2015. A research on effectiveness of Facebook advertising on enhancing purchase intention of consumers.Computers in Human Behavior, 49, pp.597-600.
  4. “Defining Your Facebook Advertising Strategy | Mailchimp”. MailChimp. N.p., 2017. Web. 5 Apr. 2017. :

Digital Marketing

Marketing of products or services through online digital media and which differs from old traditional marketing in that involves the methods and networks which help an organisation to analyse marketing operations and understand the working and what is not in real time is known as Digital marketing.  (Ryan 2016) Digital Marketers can monitor things like what is being viewed, for how long and how frequent, sales conversions, which content works and which did not work. Technology has supported most major milestones in the history of online marketing since its inception.

Nowadays digital platforms are increasingly united in marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops, digital marketing campaigns are becoming more widespread and resourceful.  There are many digital marketing techniques namely Search Engine Optimisation (SEO), Search Engine Marketing (SEM), Campaign marketing, etc. Digital marketing provides the consumer with a previously unbelievable quality and quantity of information in an easily accessible form. (Wind 2002) At present customers can sort products or goods based on their desires like price, brand, value, rating, and also a combination of this attributes.

The tremendous advance in technology is shattering walls between industries as well, shifting the balance of power to empowered consumers and creating what information technology expert Colin Crook has called the emergence of a global grid. This global grid is a network of users, portals and servers offering free communication, scalability for even smallest corporations, total connectivity and universal digitalization. Let’s discuss latest developments and strategies in marketing:

Behavioural advertising is a marketing idea where information about the user is collected based on the online activity with the help of a particular device and across different, unrelated sites, to deliver marketing advertisements personalised to that user’s interests and preferences. Users generate a lot of data in every step they choose in their journey of a customer, and the brands can use that data to activate their known audience with data-driven programmatic media buying. This Data-driven advertising is empowering advertising companies to find their customers in their audience and help in delivering in real time a much more personal communication. (Chaffey 2012) Online promotion activity is still growing across the world according to the headline global marketing index. Digital media continues to increase rapidly; while the marketing finances are expanding, old media is declining (World Economics, 2015).

Sending a great user experience and gaining the associated benefits is complex and there is a lot to consider, and I have only really touched the surface in this blog.


  1. Ryan, D., 2016.Understanding digital marketing strategies for engaging the digital generation. Kogan Page
  2. Chaffey, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F., 2012.Digital marketing. Pearson Higher Ed.
  3. Chaffey, D., Smith, P.R. and Smith, P.R., 2012.eMarketing eXcellence: Planning and optimizing your digital marketing. Routledge.
  4. Wind, Y.J. and Mahajan, V., 2002.Digital marketing: global strategies from the world’s leading experts. John Wiley & Sons.

My Favourite Adobe Premier Shortcuts

I’m a great fan of adobe’s keyboard shortcuts. I had memorised most of the keyboard shortcuts when I was working in the post-production studio. Learning shortcuts is an energy saver which can speed up our work considerably. Certain shortcuts are easy to remember because the first letter of the tool matches the task name, namely Peen Tool [P], Mark In [I], Mark Out [O].  In Premier Pro we can copy customised shortcuts from one computer to another computer, or to another location on our computer.

The are many keyboard shortcuts one can utilise in Adobe Premiere Pro, but I would like to discuss those we will be using on a more consistent basis as we edit a movie. If it’s on Mac: CTRL = COMMAND and ALT = OPTION.

  1. Selection Tool: [V]
  2. Razor Tool: [C]
  3. Slide Tool: [U]
  4. Slip Tool: [Y]
  5. Track Selection Tool: [M]
  6. Ripple Edit Tool: [B]
  7. Rate Stretch tool: [X]
  8. Add Edit: (SHIFT) + CTRL+[A]
  9. Mark In/ Out: [I] / [O]
  10. Default Transition: CTRL + [D]
  11. Mark Clip: [X]
  12. Link / Unlink: CTRL + [L]
  13. Pen Tool: [P]
  14. Unselect All: CTRL + SHIFT + A
  15. Navigation: (SHIFT) + LEFT / RIGHT / UP / DOWN
  16. Hand Tool: H
  17. Export Media: CTRL + M
  18. Rolling Edit Tool: [N]
  19. Insert to Timeline: [,]
  20. Grouping Tool: CTRL + [G]

I would like to discuss my favourite tools:

Selection Tool: [V]

Selection Tool is the default tool in Adobe Premier and the most used. It is used to select clips in the timeline

Ripple Edit Tool: [B]

This tool is used to adjust an end point and move the other clip in the timeline to compensate.

Rolling Tool: [N]

Rolling Tool is my favourite tool in adobe premier which is used to adjust an end point between two clips. Changing this end points won’t affect rest of the timeline or other clips.

Grouping Clips :[CTRL] + [G]

For using this tool firstly we should select all the clips to be grouped and then press CTRL + G. When we click a clip in the created group, they all turn grey, i.e., gets selected. Grouping helps in moving multiple clips as a whole. After grouping, if we click on the end of a clip, it trims that clip and clicking on edge trim the group.

Razor Tool: [C]

Using Razor Tool, a clip can be divided into two pieces, i.e., unwanted part of the clip can be removed easily.

Add Default Transition: [SHIFT] + [D]

By this tool, default transition effect can be added to the selected clips. Transition effects sink two shots correctly and blend nicely.

Add Edit: CTRL + K

Add Edit is similar to Razor Tool, but it cuts only targeted clips. Add edit can be viewed in a sequence by clicking the wrench icon and choose “Show Through Edits”.

Track Selection Tool: [M]

With Selection Tool all clips on a track from a specified point can be selected, or even select multiple tracks.

Film Making: The Key Process

Filmmaking takes place in many places throughout the world in a range of social, political and economic contexts, and using a variety of filmic techniques and technologies. Typically, it involves a huge number of crew members and can take a few months to several months or years to complete. I have experience working as an associate director in two feature films in India.

I wish to discuss the development stage first; It is a vague, amorphous, and painful period in which the movie’s conception takes form, and the fundamental elements get sorted. Development mainly consists of the building of the story, treatment, script, plot points and structure. In the initial development phase the main plot is developed, here the screenwriter has a personal style of developing a story. However, anyone who takes the three-act structure will determine the plot’s  structure as a matter of significance. During development, the screenwriter decides the boundaries between the three acts, also the inciting incidents, conflicts and the midpoint of the second act. After developing the basic story, for most screenwriters, the next step involves writing a scene by scene outline of the full movie. Most of them use an index card for each scene to arrange and re-arrange the scene.

Next, I would like to discuss the Location. Finding appropriate place would be a real pain. From my experience, the best way to get a good deal on places is to contact an honest film location agent and explains the situation. Depending on the movie budget, location scouts, as like casting directors are worth every denomination if one can afford them. They do exactly what their name proposes; they go with our specifications and cast candidates for our location, and in any case, they already have wide-ranging libraries of location.

How do I write reflectively?

I spent a great deal of my time thinking about stories and scripts in my life. When I reflect on a story first, I start with building a character and make a story based on character. Initially, during my bachelor’s degree, I use to think of a story and add characters and incidents to it. Later when I worked under a director, he asked me to build a character and then brainstorm to make sub characters and conflicts that the character could face.

After reading reflective reading, I realised that what he asked me to do was a similar idea. I use to think about what people have said, and I always try to include it in my stories. Most my character’s characteristics are same as my real world friends or colleagues. I would say, reflection is a personal response to new ideas, information, situation, or experiences. It is a phase of processing where learning and thinking would take place. In my opinion, there is no particular style or format of reflective thinking; there are only questions to be explored and answered. Studying other people is an opportunity to gain self-knowledge, and also a way to achieve clarity and a better understanding of what we are learning.

I would like to discuss the strategies for enhancing learning from surrounding experience. We should also think about the different perspectives on what we read or experience, i.e., alternative interpretations I would like to call. We should be able to answer few questions like, why it is inspiring, confusing, challenging or exciting. We should be able to explore what comes next after thoughts and actions. Later at the end, we should think about, how we solved the problem, reached a conclusion and attained the point of understanding.

Melbourne Noir: Shelter in the shadows

YouTube Link:



Earlier I have done five short films in black and white tone, however here the challenge was bit different because the challenge was to narrate a story with four images and two videos. Film noir go beyond genre to have an objective reality as a body of movie described by their predicted change of mood and scepticism. Noir is my favourite theme because it should have a stark, high contrast, sharp visuals, and angular shadows. My aim was to introduce a rustic feel to the modern city Melbourne. The main characteristic of my story was the interaction between the photographer and light. When I was thinking about the narrative theme ambiguity and violent death came to my mind.

The biggest problem I faced during the shoot was the lack of sufficient light and unwanted noise in the image. Adequate lighting can bring vibrant and high contrast black shadows to the frame. It is the constant opposition of areas of light and dark that characterises film noir cinematography, stated by Janey Place and Lowell Peterson. As I shot the video with the Mobile phone, the depth of field doesn’t play a significant role in the photos and videos. One of my classmate, Christina Stenseth’s issue, was with the lighting. Most of the scenes shot at night with subtle lighting and with shadows. Street lights are the only source of light and the main action set in the dark street. The characters and the location often give sufficient lighting emphasis. The antagonist hid in the realistic tableau of the city at night, and most of the time his face is blacked out by shadow as he follows. Due to insufficient lighting, the arrangement of space inside the frame was irregular, because of that establishing long shot and the personalised shots were tough.

The Oscar winner Janusz Kaminski, for the film Schindler’s List, he faced a similar lighting issue, and the film was his first feature film directed by Steven Spielberg. Kaminski shot most of the movies in the black and white emulsion; he uses light as symbolism, and it represents quickly. He is a lover of soft lighting and seen throughout the movie. With the help of natural light, he tries to get a soft diffused look, and he ended up in getting a highlight blooming. Detailed study of Kaminski’s lighting style, helped me to realise the mistakes I have made during the framing process. Using natural light and street lights is a better way to get a soft and contrasting look for the objects in the frame.


1. Naremore, James. More than any Night: Film Noir in its Contexts. Berkley and Los Angeles. University of California Press,  1998.

2. J. Walker, Sheldon. “Schindler’s List (1993) – DP: Janusz Kaminski”. Sheldon J. Walker | Cinematographer. N.p., 2017. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

3. Tsutsumi, Cindy. “Film Noir | Film Noir: Characteristics.”, 2017. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

4. Christopher, Nicholas. Somewhere in the Night: Film Noir and the American City. New York: The Free Press, Division of Simon & Schuster, 1997


I recently became aware of the extent online media can get into our personal interest and identities. When a person creates a page or an account on social media, he or she has to put their personal information into the platform. These details are then set as our online identity. This profile details will be tracked by the web services and used to target us with various contents, which will interest us.

For example, when we post or browse about our favourite football club and later when we browse, the ads or news regarding the football club will be displayed in the advertisement column, this is because the web services maintain our browsing history and the user profile. Thus, comes the partial identity which is said as the secondary characteristics of the main character. For example, when we plan to buy a gadget online we may browse and add it to shopping site’s wish list or cart, and this data will be your partial identity.

The Identifier is a code that identifies a person or an object uniquely. The identifiers may include the MAC address of our computer’s network adapter, E-mail, Mobile number and even the location through GPS. The rate of information gets increased based on our online browsing pattern. For instance, a search you conducted for “discount shoes” or a list of websites visited. Your profile may also be based on inference data. For example, a service provider has a certain number of data points; they will use those as the basis to infer other things about you

An advertiser can track a user’s movements between Web sites because the first banner advertisement presented can set a cookie containing a unique identifier. Whenever we are browsing online the online web services drop a specific code into our system which we used to navigate, this system includes the data about the browsing and its pattern. This system is utilised by the sites to target us in later browsing. When we enter into a site, and suddenly we find an advertisement based on our previous day’s browse data. For instance, we checked the price of an apple laptop online, and on the next day, we would be able to find advertisements about the suggested laptops with low price, this is done by the web services by dropping the cookies inside our system. For example, sets a cookie to identify users when they log in; this allows users to download content from without having to re-enter a password.

I can conclude that we are always tracked one way or the other, even our present location is monitored by an unknown person on the other side.


  1. Wood, Andrew F, and Matthew J Smith. “Online Communication”. Google Books. N.p., 2017. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
  2. Shull, Mark, William Bohlman, and Elisa Cooper. “Patent US20060230039 – Online Identity Tracking”. Google Books. N.p., 2017. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.